Creating Teas: Boost Healing and Cure Stomach Issues.

Using a Richi Tea Bag and a Drip Tea Pot.
1 Smidgeon of Comfrey
1 Smidgeon of Mullein Leaf
1 Smidgeon of Yarrow Flower POwer
1 Teaspoon of Chamomile Flowers
1 Teaspoon of Burdock Root
1 Teaspoon of Dandelion Root

2 cups of water to pot
Steeped for 5 minutes.
Added 1 stick of CBD Blackberry Honey.

Will Post results 9/17/2023


9/15/2023  11:15pm
Current Physical Condition.
Weight 431
Height 6’3″
The wound on leg keeps getting bigger
Stomach queasiness getting worse
Migraines are occurring more often.
Sluggish Feeling
Depression is pretty profound
Exhaustion is absolute.

1 hr after ingesting.  12:30am
Tingly, minty-like feeling in the mouth.
a hefty twinge in the back where the kidneys are
Pissing feeling on overload. 
feel snotty
Anxiety is a little high
I feel relaxed though. 
Visual auras are slightly brighter than normal 

2 hrs after ingestwing 2:30am
feeling the ick in stomach, chest, and back.
ready for sleep

Comfrey: ancient and modern uses

For over 2,000 years, comfrey root and other parts of the herb have been used to treat a variety of ailments. The plant (Symphytum officinale L) belongs to the family Boraginacea and has been valued in traditional medicine for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and astringent properties.

Medicinal plants

22 December 2007

By Christiane StaigerCopy link to pageDownload PDF

It is native to Britain and extends throughout most of Europe into Central Asia and Western Siberia. Wild comfrey was taken to the US by English emigrants.

In all western European languages, the name for comfrey is derived from its application. All the different names focus on uniting and firming. For example, the Greek term symphyton, (symphytum in Latin), is derived from symphyo; “I grow together”. Solidago, derived from solido (“I make firm”), was also a synonym.

The Latin consolida, frequently found in historical papers, means “the one who makes firm”. The evolution of the word “comfrey” comprises the middle English comferi, from the old French cumfirie, from vulgar Latin confervia, from confervere(“to boil together”).

The German names, Beinwell and Wallwurz, are based on the verb wallen, which means “growing together”. Bein originally meant bone, thus comfrey is an agent that makes bones grow together. Comfrey has also been known as boneset, knitbone, black wort, wall wort, and slippery root.

Comfrey in ancient times

Merck, Darmstadt

The ‘Naturalis historia’ of the Pliny the Elder (23?–79 AD) is one of the most important testimonies of ancient phytomedicine. In book 26, chapter 137, comfrey is mentioned for the first time for the treatment of bruises and sprains, and a syrup of the herb or a decoction of its root are used.

Chapter 148 claims that comfrey ensures rapid healing of wounds and, in chapter 161, comfrey is mentioned as an emmenagogue when ground into dark wine.

Dioscorides’s ‘Materia medica’ is the oldest materia medica in Europe. Created at the same time as, but independent from, the ‘Naturalis historia’, it has been shaping European and Arabic phytotherapy for nearly 2,000 years.

Dioscorides also mentions comfrey: “The roots below are black on the outside and white and slimy on the inside. …Finely ground and then drunk they are beneficial for those spitting blood and those suffering from internal abscesses. Used as a compress they also seal fresh wounds. They have a joining together effect when cooked with pieces of flesh. They act as cataplasm in the case of inflammation, especially in the anal area.” 

The Middle Ages and early modern times

The treatment of rheumatism and gout were added to the indications for comfrey in the Middle Ages. Nicholas Culpeper (1616–54) mentioned the herb in ‘The English Physitian’. He wanted to give the poor access to affordable herbs and medicines and turned against doctors and pharmacists who prescribed common medicinal plants using their Latin names and then over-priced them, as well as against importation of expensive drugs.

As a pretext to the extended edition of 1656 he wrote: “Containing a Complete Method or Physick, whereby a man may preserve his Body in health; or Cure himself, being Sick, for three pence Charge, with such things only as grow in England, they being most fit for English Bodies.”

Regarding comfrey, Culpeper stated: “It is said to be so powerful to consolidate and knit together; that if they be boyled with dissevered pieces of flesh in a pot, it will join them together again, and a Syrup made thereof is very effectual for all those inward Griefs and Hurts; … and for outward Wounds and Sores in the Fleshy or Sinewy part of the Body whatsoever … A Decoction of the Leaves hereof is available to al the purposes, though not so effectual as the Roots.”

Further, he recommends comfrey for: “Spitting, pissing Blood, Inward Wounds & Bruises, Phtisick, Bloody Flux, Terms stops, Whites, Nervs cut, Muscles cut, sharp Humors, Wounds, Ruptures, broken Bones, Knotted Breasts, Hemorrhoids, Inflamation, Gout, Pained Joynts, and Gangreans.”

Other books published on the continent during this era also list similar indications.

20th century

During the 20th century the number of indications in standard publications like ‘Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen Praxis’ (handbook of pharmaceutical practice; 1978) increased considerably. External use is indicated for periosteum problems, bone fractures, promotion of callus formation, neuralgia after fractures, strains, contusions, tenosynovitis and inflammation of a muscle, haematoma, thrombosis, arthritis, wounds that heal badly and periodontosis. Internal use is directed for gastritis, peptic ulcers, cough remedies and use as a popular medicine in cases of rheumatism, pleurisy, bronchitis, diarrhoea and tumours.

Besides medicinal purposes, comfrey was grown for use in cooking and for feeding livestock. The plant was also used as a food during the potato famine in Ireland in the 1840s. Today, however, the internal use of unprocessed comfrey is not recommended.

Farmers value comfrey as a nutritious fodder for cattle and, when the leaves are soaked in rainwater for a few weeks they produce a valuable fertiliser for the garden, especially for tomatoes and potatoes.

In the second half of the 20th century the active constituents of comfrey were detected for the first time. These include allantoin and mucilaginous substances. Rosmarinic acid and other hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (including caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid) are most likely also have a central significance for the pharmacodynamics.

However, their exact molecular mechanism has not been completely determined. Further, comfrey contains potentially toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, but absorption is significantly lower through the skin compared with if given orally. Today, licensed preparations contain extracts which are almost PA-free. For this purpose, comfrey roots with low PA levels are used; moreover, in the course of the extraction procedure, the alkaloids are reduced to the detection limit.

In a monograph, the German Commission E positively rated the use of comfrey root (symphyti radix) for external application to treat bruises, pulled muscles and tendons, and sprains. Currently, about 10 controlled clinical trials have examined the efficacy and tolerability of topical formulations containing comfrey.

A recently published clinical trial, meeting all modern standards of good clinical practice, comparing an ointment of comfrey root extract with placebo to treat acute sprains reported a significant superiority in efficacy of the comfrey ointment. In another focusing on acute ankle sprains, the same topical preparation was compared with diclofenac diethylamine gel. The published results not only demonstrated non-inferiority of the comfrey extract in all measured variables but indicated that phytotherapy in this case may be superior to conventional medicine.

The most recent randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial (published in Phytomedicine 2007;14:2–10) has demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of a comfrey root extract ointment in the treatment of patients with painful osteoarthritis of the knee.

Today, topical preparations of comfrey root extract are clinically proven and licensed in several countries to treat muscle and joint ailments.

Comfrey: Its History, Uses & Benefits

Paul Alfrey from the Balkan Ecology Project gives the history of comfrey along with its multiple uses (as medicinal, biomass, mulch) and how he has created a comfrey patch to increase fertility in their market garden.

Paul Alfrey


There’s a plethora of info out there about comfrey but not much detail regarding establishing and managing a comfrey patch so I thought I would write an article to share my experience on this and how we grow comfrey as part of our fertility strategy in the market garden.

Introduction to comfrey  

A member of the borage family, comfrey – Symphytum spp. is native to Europe and Asia and there are 40 recorded species throughout that region. The plant most commonly referred to and used in gardens is Russian comfrey – Symphytum x uplandicum, a naturally occurring hybrid of two wild species: common comfrey – Symphytum officinale and prickly comfrey – Symphytum asperum.

A few centuries back, the hybrid Symphytum x uplandicum came to the attention of Henry Doubleday (1810-1902) and he widely promoted the plant as a food and forage crop. Years later, and after two world wars, Lawrence D Hills (1911-1991) would continue Henry Doubleday’s Comfrey crusade.

In the 1950s, Hills developed a comfrey research program in the village of Bocking, near Braintree in the UK. The original trial site is on the plot of land now occupied by the Doubleday Gardens housing development. Lawrence Hills lived at 20 Convent Lane just around the corner of the trial site. At this site, Hills trialed at least 21 comfrey ‘strains’, each one named after the village Bocking. Strain 14 was identified as being the most nutrient rich, non-seeding strain and ‘Bocking 14’ began its journey into gardens far and wide across the world. (Learn more its history on the Balkan Ecology Project blog.)

Uses of comfrey

Medicinal – Comfrey has been cultivated as a healing herb since at least 400BC. The Greeks and Romans commonly used comfrey to stop heavy bleeding, treat bronchial problems and heal wounds and broken bones.

Poultices were made for external wounds and tea was consumed for internal ailments. Comfrey has been reported to promote healthy skin with its mucilage content that moisturizes and soothes and promotes cell proliferation.

This plant is my first port of call if ever I need to dress a wound. Simply take a few leaves brush them together to remove the hairs and wrap them around the wound and apply light pressure. It’s incredibly effective at stopping the bleeding, reducing the pain and healing the wound.

Biomas – Comfrey produces large amounts of foliage from late May (late spring) until hard frosts in October or November (late autumn). The plant is excellent for producing mulch and can be cut from 2-5 times per year depending on how well the plants are watered and fed. The plant grows rapidly after each harvest.

In our gardens we have Comfrey ‘Bocking 14’ located next to each fruit tree in order to have a renewable source of mulch just where we need it. We also grow in patches as part of our fertility strategy in the market garden and have patches in the wildflower meadows (details below).

We’ve supplied 1,000 ‘Bocking 14’ cuttings to Oxygenisis, a business in Germany who are experimenting with using this plant for carbon capture.

Mineral dam – Comfrey has deep roots of up to 2m that utilize nutrients deep in the subsoil that would otherwise wash away with the underground soil water or remain inaccessible to other plants. The nutrients, once taken up from the roots, are relocated throughout the plant as and where needed with some of them ending up in the comfrey leaf mass. When cutting the leaf mass and applying to the soil surface, the mined nutrients are returned and again made accessible to shallower rooted crop plants.

Biodiversity – The bell shaped flowers provide nectar and pollen to many species of bees and other insects from late May until the first frosts in late autumn. Lacewings are said to lay eggs on comfrey and spiders overwinter on the plant. Parasitoid wasps and spiders will hunt on and around comfrey.

Pest and disease prevention and control – Research indicates that a comfrey solution can be used to prevent powdery mildew. Pest predators such as spiders, lacewings and parasatoid wasps associate with this plant. It’s best to leave some plants alone in order to sustain pest predator relationships.

Ground cover – Some species can quickly spread to form a thick ground cover and work particularly well for ground cover on the sunny side under shrubs and trees. Symphytum tuberosum – Tuberous Comfrey seems to be the best species for this. 

Fertilizer – Comfrey leaves contain a great balance of major plant nutrients (N,P,K) and can be fed to plants as powder, direct mulch or by steeping chopped comfrey leaves in water for several weeks to produce a thick, dark liquid that can be diluted with water and applied to plant roots. More on this below.

Nutritional value of comfrey – You can see from the below table that wilted comfrey contains significantly higher quantities of potash compared to other organic fertilizers. It’s well recorded that comfrey is an excellent source of potassium (K) a major plant nutrient that is required by plants in large amounts for proper growth and reproduction.

Animal fodder – Comfrey has a long history for use as an animal feed. Lawrence D Hills dedicated books to this topic.* The leaves are best received by animals wilted. Fresh leaves can be eaten by pigs, sheep, and poultry but cattle, rabbits and horses will only consume wilted leaves.

Human consumption – Symphytum officianale and Symphytum x uplandicum are both reported to be used for salad and potherb and are best when cooked. Personally I’m not keen on the texture but will have the occasional nibble from the garden using the new growth to mix in a spring green salad.

Caution – Although comfrey has been used as a food crop, in the past 20 years scientific studies reported that comfrey may be carcinogenic, since it appeared to cause liver damage and cancerous tumors in rats. These reports have temporarily restricted development of comfrey as a food crop. In light of this, the regular consumption of comfrey is not advisable. 

Plant description

Life cycle – Herbaceous perennial

Growth habit – Comfrey begins growth in early-April and by early May compact clusters of young leaves are visible in the crown of the old plant. Within a few weeks, the leaf blades with long petioles have grown to over 35cm high. Basal leaves are large, lance-shaped, stalked, and coarsely hairy. The leaves die back following the first frost and remain dormant for winter. Many species can spread vigorously via seed and are generally not welcome in the garden because of this. Other species can spread via tubers and all species quickly regenerate from broken root pieces.  

Flowering – Starts in late May or early June and continues until the first frost in late autumn. The bell-shaped flowers with pedicels are in terminal cymes or one-sided clusters. Flowers of common comfrey are usually creamy yellow, but white, red, or purple types have been found in Europe. Prickly comfrey has pink and blue flowers while Russian comfrey has blue, purple, or red-purple flowers. Tuberous comfrey has creamy white flowers. Vegetative growth does not cease with the start of flowering, and the plant will add new stems continuously during the growing season. Most comfrey plants can be somewhat invasive, spreading via seed to parts of the garden where they are not wanted. ‘Bocking 14’ will flower and provide nectar and pollen but will not produce viable seed.

Roots – Some species have short, thick, tuberous roots such as Symphytum tuberosum. Others such as Symphytum x uplandicum have deep and expansive root systems.

Plant requirements

Light – Needs full sun for good biomass production but grows fine in the shade.

Shade – Tolerates light shade (about 50%).

Moisture – Some species are drought tolerant e.g. Symphytum tuberosum. Cultivated plants require irrigation.

USDA Hardiness Zone – 4-9 comfrey crowns and roots are very winter hardy. 

Soil – Comfrey is adaptable to many soils, but prefers moist, fertile soils. 

pH – Tolerates a wide range (6.5-8.5), although not very sensitive to soil pH, highest yields are reported to occur on soils with a pH of 6.0 to 7.0.

Setting up a comfrey patch

Perhaps you’re interested in growing comfrey to feed your animals, for medicine, for mulch, for compost or you’re slightly masochistic and want to roll around naked in the pricky beds of biomass (not me). In any case, here’s how to do it.

The plant we use in our gardens is Symphytum x uplandicum – ‘Bocking 14’. A sterile cultivar that produces copious quantities of nutrient dense biomass. The following information is based on using this plant. 

Choosing the site – We’re growing for biomass and want the plants to receive as much light as possible. Accordingly, we lay out our beds on an east to west axis (we’re in the northern hemisphere). 

Irrigation is necessary if you want to get good yields from the plants so picking a place with access to irrigation is of paramount important. 

In areas of low rainfall, using the gradient of the land to channel precipitation towards your beds will reduce the water needs of your plants. In areas of high rainfall with a high water table you should consider diverting water away from the beds.

Once established, comfrey is difficult to get rid of, so choose a site where you want it to stay. Don’t plant comfrey in any area you cultivate, as the broken root pieces quickly establish into new plants and can out compete slower growing crops. 

Position comfrey downhill from where you expect leachate to be present, i.e downhill from a manure pile , compost heap, outside toilet, animal pen etc., can provide passive fertility to the plants and rescue otherwise lost minerals from draining away with the sub soil ground water. 
Grow the comfrey where you want to use it. As you’ll see later we may be harvesting over 1/4 ton biomass from our patch and don’t want to be carrying that over long distances.

Preparing the site – Raised beds are a major part of our fertility strategy and overtime retain water and nutrients very efficiently. I use 1.3m wide beds surrounded by 50cm paths for our crops as this allows easy access for harvesting everywhere in the beds without ever having to tread on the soil and the paths are wise enough to take our lawnmower.

To form a bed, the area should be cleared of all plants, which is best achieved by sheet mulching the season before. Pernicious perennials or tap rooted biennials should be dug out. After you have cleared the whole area, mark out the bed shape with string and dig out 50cm wide paths around your beds, applying the soil to the surface of the planting area and thereby creating the initial rise of the bed. Fork over the beds well. If a hardpan is present take the time and effort to eliminate it before planting.

Depending on the quality of your soil you may want to add extra compost before planting into the bed. If you have sheet mulched the area before hand, with the additional soil from the paths all you need to do is add a good 20cm thick straw mulch (or some other mulch) and it’s ready for planting. A good mulch to start with will help keep the weeds down while your comfrey gets going.

You can alter the depth and gradient of the paths to facilitate the required direction of water movement.

Planting material – You can plant out with crown divisions or root cuttings best done in the spring when the soil has warmed. A crown division can be obtained from simply putting a spade through the center of a mature comfrey plant and transplanting the divided sections. For our beds, I divided two year old plants into quarters, sometimes sixths, and these established very well in the first year. It’s bests not to harvest the leaf biomass in the first year in order to allow a deep root system to develop. However if you use large divisions you can start harvesting in July.

Root cuttings are a great way to plant out large areas of comfrey. The cuttings should be grown on in small pots with 50% compost 50% river sand mix kept moist and planted out in the spring as soon as the first leaves emerge and the soil has warmed. If you are planting large numbers of root cuttings you can plant directly into the beds by creating ‘nests’ in the straw, adding two cupped handfuls of the above mentioned potting mix and plant the cuttings into this. Keep them moist like a wrung out sponge and the success rate will be very close to 100%.

Spacing – The plants should be spaced 60cm apart in rows and 60cm apart at diagonals between rows. Plant the rows 15cm from the edge of the beds.


Cutting – In the first year allow the plants to establish so that the roots develop well and penetrate deep into the subsoil. Remove any weeds around the plants leaving them on the surface. The following year the cutting can begin. You can scythe the beds for a quick harvest or cut each plant individually with a pair of secateurs or shears cutting to 5cm or so from ground level.

The leaves are prickly so if you have sensitive hands wear gloves. Cut the comfrey as the flowering stalks emerge up to four times a year. Allow the plants to flower at least once during the season to provide bee fodder to a range of native bees and honey bees. Leave the last flush of leaves before the winter so that invertebrates can find winter shelter in the undergrowth. You may need to weed between cuts every now and then but generally the comfrey will quickly cover the surface.

Feeding – After you have cut the comfrey, mow the pathways between the beds and empty the trimmings to the base of the comfrey plants. Any trimmings from lawns and hedges in the surrounding area can also be used.

We are experimenting with growing nitrogen fixing hedging and ground cover plants adjacent to the patch in order to feed our comfrey.

A most excellent comfrey feed is undiluted urine applied at a rate of approx 500 ml per plant twice per growing season.

Irrigation – Comfrey will produce more biomass if irrigated and in dry climates it’s essential to irrigate. Comfrey plants wilt very fast in hot conditions and will stop photosynthesising at this point. Twenty litres per m2 per week of drought should be more than adequate. The beauty of biological systems are that, if managed properly, each year the soils improve and the ability of the soil to store water will improve over time.

We use passive irrigation diverting water from a mountain stream into the paths around the beds. The paths fill with water, we raise the level by blocking the low points with sacks of sawdust and the water is drawn throughout the soil via capillary action.

Passive irrigation in our market garden. The paths fill with water and the water permeates throughout the soil via capillary action.

How we use the comfrey 

As mulch – Freshly cut comfrey leaves make good mulch because they have high nitrogen content, and don’t pull nitrogen from the soil while decomposing. Comfrey’s high potassium content makes it especially beneficial for vegetables such as tomatoes, peppers and cucumbers, berries, and fruit trees.

With adequate feed and watering we’ve seen yields of 2-3kg of biomass per plant per cut.

Comfrey beds establishing well. This bed was planted with divided crowns 5 months prior to this photo being taken.

Liquid fertliser – What I like to call ‘Comfert’. Fill a barrel, preferably with a bottom tap and a gauze on the inside (to prevent clogging) about 3/4 full with freshly cut comfrey and add water to fill the barrel. Cover it, and let it steep for 3-6 weeks. The smell from the resulting liquid is far from attractive so approach with caution. The tea may be used full strength or diluted by half or more. Don’t apply before heavy rain is forecast as most of the nutrients suspended in the liquid will wash straight through the soil. For the best results apply the feed to your vegetables when they are in most need of the extra fertility. This will be different for each crop, for example, tomatoes are best fed when they are setting fruit and then any time during the fruiting period. Applying comfert before this can be counter productive and make your plants more susceptible to pest problems. The black slurry at the bottom of the barrel can be dispersed evenly back over the comfrey patch.

Liquid fertilizer concentrate – ‘Comfert Plus’ can also be made by packing fresh-cut comfrey tops into an old bucket, weighing them down with something heavy, covering tightly, and waiting a few weeks for them to decompose into a black slurry. You can put a hole in the bottom of the bucket and collect the concentrate in another container as it drips out. Dilute this comfrey concentrate about 15 to 1 with water, and use as you would comfert. You can seal this concentrate in plastic jugs until you are ready to use it.

Warning! Comfert stinks like hell. My nieces came to visit from London last year and offered to help out in the market garden. One of the tasks that day was to apply comfert to the crops. Let’s just say it did not end well and we had a much better experience taking softwood cuttings the next day.

Plant nutrient value of comfrey 

According to Martin Crawford in Creating a Forest Garden: Working with Nature to Grow Edible Crops, one cut of comfrey from one plant contains 0.5g of Nitrogen (N) and 10g of potassium (K) to crops.

Based on this I calculated how much Potassium (K), Nitrogen (N) and biomass the 13 m2  comfrey patch can potentially produce in a year.

Below is a table indicating how many comfrey cuts are needed to meet the Nitrogen and Potassium needs of various moderate and heavy cropping fruit and nut trees and annual vegetables.

Expected yields 

In the 1960s, Lawrence D. Hills used UK gardeners records for a comfrey report. (See the Balkan Ecology Project blog for the results.)

Based on these records I calculated a yield of approx. 5.5kg of biomass per plant each year. Using this figure one of our beds should produce approx 286kg of biomass. We shall see as this year we begin our own records. We’re looking to gather some solid data on how comfrey performs in our climate and we’ll be recording the yields from our patch starting this season and for at least the next five years. For more info on our record keeping and research programs see Polyculture Market Garden Study.

If you would like to join the ‘who can grow the most comfrey’ experiment and contribute data to our records, send us an email. It will be great to have records from all over the world.

For the full article from the Balkan Ecology Project visit HERE

How to grow your own mulch

Book: No Dig Organic Home and Garden

Watch: The many uses of comfrey

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About the Author

Paul Alfrey

Paul runs the Balkan Ecology Project in Bulgaria with his wife Sophie Roberts and their two boys Dylan and Archie.

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Burdock: Exploring Its Magical and Medicinal Properties

June 1, 2023 / By Barbi Gardiner

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Burdock is an herb that has been used for centuries in both magical and medicinal practices. As someone who has always been interested in alternative medicine and the power of nature, I was intrigued to learn more about this plant and its many benefits. From its use as a tonic to its ability to help with skin conditions, this herb has a lot to offer.

In terms of its magical properties, it is often associated with the Earth element and is said to have grounding and protective qualities. It has been used in spells for purification, banishing negative energy, and attracting abundance.  I find it fascinating to learn about the different herbs and plants that can be used to connect me more deeply with the natural world.

When it comes to its medicinal properties, burdock has been used to treat a wide range of ailments, from digestive issues to skin conditions. It is rich in antioxidants and has anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, making it a powerful ally for overall health and wellness. As someone who values natural remedies and alternative medicine, I am always on the lookout for new ways to support my health and wellbeing, and this is definitely one plant that I will be incorporating into my routine.




Burdock (Arctium lappa) is native to Europe and has a long history of use in traditional medicine. It was used to treat a variety of ailments, including skin disorders, digestive issues, and respiratory problems. In traditional European medicine, its root was often combined with dandelion root and yellow dock root to create a tonic that was believed to purify the blood and support liver function.


Burdock has also been used in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. In Asia, burdock root is known as “niu bang” and is often used in stir-fries, soups, and herbal teas. In Chinese medicine, burdock root is believed to have a cooling effect on the body and is used to treat conditions such as fever, sore throat, and acne.

North America

Burdock was introduced to North America by European settlers and quickly naturalized in many areas. Native American tribes also used it for medicinal purposes. The Iroquois used its root to treat colds, coughs, and rheumatism, while the Ojibwa used its leaves to make poultices for skin conditions and as one of the ingredients of a medicine for pain in the stomach.



Burdock is a plant with many nutritional and medicinal properties. The roots, leaves, flowers, and seeds all contain different compounds that can be beneficial to our health. In this section, I will discuss the various properties of each part of this incredible plant.

  • Roots  – The roots of are rich in nutrients such as iron, magnesium, and potassium and vitamin B6. They are also a good source of inulin, a prebiotic fiber that can improve digestion and promote the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. Burdock root has been used for centuries in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including skin conditions, inflammation, and osteoarthritis. It has diuretic properties, which means it can help to increase urine output and remove excess fluid from the body. This makes it useful for treating conditions such as edema and high blood pressure.
  • Leaves – The leaves have traditionally been used to treat skin conditions such as eczema and acne, as well as to improve digestion and stimulate the appetite. Burdock leaves also have anti-inflammatory properties, which may make them useful for treating conditions such as arthritis and gout.
  • Flowers – The flowers are less commonly used than the roots and leaves, but they also have medicinal properties. They contain antioxidants, which can help to protect the body from damage caused by free radicals. Burdock flowers have traditionally been used to treat conditions such as colds, flu, and sore throats.
  • Seeds – The seeds have traditionally been used to treat conditions such as skin disorders, arthritis, and diabetes. Burdock seeds also have diuretic properties, which can help to remove excess fluid from the body and reduce swelling.

In conclusion, burdock is a versatile plant with many nutritional and medicinal properties. Its roots, leaves, flowers, and seeds all contain different compounds that can be beneficial to our health. Whether you are looking to improve your digestion, treat a skin condition, or reduce inflammation, this wonderful herb may be able to help.



As a medicinal plant, burdock has been used for centuries to treat a wide range of health conditions. Here are some of the health benefits of this herb:

  • Skin Conditions – Burdock has been traditionally used to treat skin conditions such as acne and eczema. It is believed to help reduce inflammation, detoxify the skin, and improve overall skin health. 
  • Detoxification – Burdock is known for its detoxifying properties. It can help remove toxins from the body, which can improve overall health and well-being. 
  • Anti-inflammatory—Burdock has anti-inflammatory properties that can help reduce inflammation in the body. This can be particularly beneficial for people with inflammatory conditions such as arthritis and other autoimmune disorders. 
  • Antioxidant – Burdock is a rich source of antioxidants, which can help protect the body against oxidative stress. Antioxidants can help prevent cellular damage and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. 
  • Blood Purification – Burdock has been traditionally used to purify the blood and improve overall blood health. It can help remove toxins from the blood and improve circulation, which can have a positive impact on overall health. 
  • Digestive Aid – Burdock can help improve digestive health by promoting healthy digestion and reducing inflammation in the gut. It can also help improve nutrient absorption and reduce the risk of digestive issues such as constipation and bloating. 
  • Immune System Support – Burdock can help support the immune system by promoting healthy immune function and reducing inflammation in the body. It can also help improve overall health and well-being by reducing the risk of chronic diseases. 
  • Cancer Prevention – Burdock has been shown to have anti-tumor properties that can help prevent the growth and spread of cancer cells. It can also help reduce inflammation in the body, which can reduce the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. 

Overall, burdock has many health benefits that make it a valuable addition to any diet. However, it is important to note that burdock can cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to daisies, chrysanthemums, or ragweed. Pregnant women and children should also consult with a healthcare professional before using burdock as a medicinal herb.



As a food source, burdock can be used in a variety of dishes. Its roots can be boiled, sautéed, or roasted and added to soups, stews, or stir-fries. The leaves can also be used in salads or cooked as a side dish.


Here are a few recipe ideas that incorporate burdock:

Bittering Agent

Burdock root has been used historically as a bittering agent in beer before the widespread adoption of hops. It can be added to the boiling wort during the brewing process to impart a slightly sweet and earthy flavor to the beer.


In addition to being used as a bittering agent, burdock root can also be used to make a non-alcoholic beverage similar to root beer. The root can be boiled with other herbs and spices, such as sarsaparilla, ginger, and cinnamon, to create a flavorful and refreshing drink.


Burdock root, leaves, seeds, and flowers can be brewed into a tea. It has a slightly bitter and earthy flavor and is often used as a natural remedy for various ailments. To make burdock root tea, simply steep a few slices of the root in hot water for 10-15 minutes. 

Overall, burdock is a versatile and nutritious ingredient that can be incorporated into a variety of dishes. Its bittering and medicinal properties also make it a valuable addition to any herbalist’s toolkit.



It’s important to note that these magical properties are based on folklore, cultural beliefs, and alternative spiritual practices. As with any magical tool or ingredient, the effectiveness and interpretation may vary depending on personal beliefs and practices.

Burdock is a well-known witch’s herb, with a long history of use in magical practices. It is also known by other names such as bat root, beggar’s buttons, and gypsy rhubarb. Burdock is associated with the element of the Earth. This association is based on the plant’s grounding qualities and its deep roots that penetrate the earth.

  • Protection – Burdock is believed to have protective properties that can ward off negativity and evil spirits. It is often used in amulets, talismans, and charms to protect the wearer from harm.
  • Good Fortune – Burdock is also attributed to good fortune. It is believed that burdock can bring prosperity, vitality, and virility. It can be used in spells and rituals for charms for good fortune. You may write wishes on the leaves of and burn them to make them come true.
  • Grounding and Stability – As burdock has deep roots firmly planted in the earth, it is associated with grounding and stability. It is believed to help individuals connect with the earth’s energy, promoting a sense of stability, rootedness, and balance.


As with any herbs, it is important to be aware of the potential side effects and precautions of this plant. While it is generally considered safe, there are a few things to keep in mind.

Consult a healthcare provider, especially if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. The root of this herb has a mild diuretic effect, so moderate consumption is important to prevent dehydration. Allergic reactions are rare but possible; seek medical attention if you experience symptoms like hives or difficulty breathing. Monitor blood sugar levels closely if you have diabetes, as ingesting this herb may mildly affect them. 

While it has shown benefits, this herb is not a substitute for medical treatment and should not be used for serious conditions without professional guidance. Stay informed, be cautious, and consult a healthcare provider before using burdock root.


Immerse yourself in a wealth of articles about wild edible and medicinal plants. Uncover the secrets of foraging, learn to identify and safely harvest these remarkable gifts from the earth. Delve into the healing properties of plants, exploring their medicinal uses and how they can enhance your well-being.

Click Here

Disclaimer- I am not a medical professional. All information shared here is for information and entertainment only. Do your own research and consult your health care provider before treating yourself with any product, plant or mixture. 



====================================================================Mullein Leaf

health benefits of mullein

Health Benefits of Mullein – An Amazing Herb to Know

April 11, 2021 / By Barbi Gardiner

The Outdoor Apothecary is reader-supported. When you buy through links on our site, we may earn an affiliate commission. Learn more

Many people are unaware of the health benefits of mullein and regard it as a plant to eradicate from their landscape.

The truth, however, is that mullein has many health benefits and is a favorite of many herbalists for its uses and versatility. Read more to find out about the many wonders of this remarkable, healing plant. 




health benefits of mullein
Image by lumpi from Pixabay


To 7 foot tall in full flower; the leaves, to 8 inches.


2-3 feet


Flowers & leaves


Mullein leaves are soft with fine hairs, which irritate the mucous membranes of the animals that attemp to eat them. The wooly leaves protect the plant from moisture loss and insects. Mullein’s round, fibrous stem is sturdy and produces bright yellow flowers from midsummer to early autumn. Dried, the flowers have a faint, honey-like scent.


Mullein contains mucilage, flavinoids, triterpenoid saponins, volitile oil, and tannins. 

During the early spring here in the Northeast, one of the herbs we look forward to is Mullein. This magical herb of antiquity has many names such as Aaron’s rod, candlewick plant, hag’s taper (a personal favorite), cow lungwort, and velvet dock.


health benefits of mullein

The health benefits of mullein are many and varied. Mullein is a valuable herb for treating respiratory illness, coughs and congestion, and has been used as a specific treatment for tracheitis and bronchitis.

Its particular affinity is for the respiratory system, but it is also known to calm and strenghten the nerves, digestion, and urinary system. It’s a great herb for swollen glands and overall good at releiving pain.

Mullein leaves have a soothing, hydrating effect on the lungs and contain saponins that help break up mucus.

Mullein flowers are used to make ear drops to soothe earache.

Mullein root can be used to releive back pain and inflammation.

health benefits of mullein


Mullein is best harvested when the plants are young.  I typically gather mid to late April and before the plant sends up its tall flower spike.

Collect young leaves and dry them whole.  Crumble them for storage and later use. 

When collecting the flowers later in the season, you’ll want to pick them carefully to avoid bruising.  Spread in a single layer on a mesh screen to dry. 

Below are three common preparations for mullein and what each one is good for. 


Good for:

  • dry irritale coughs
  • bronchitis
  • laryngitis
  • pleurisy
  • swollen glands

To prepare mullein tea:

  1. Take a rounded tablespoon of dried mullein leaf alone or a mixture of leaf and flower.
  2. Pour boiling water over herbs and steep covered for 15 minutes.
  3. Strain the mullein leaves and flowers through cheesecloth to remove any fine hairs. 
  4. Drink as needed for dry cough or any irritation to the respiratory sysstem or chest. T


Good for:

  • earache
  • nerve pain
  • hemorrhoids & piles
  • chest rub
  • chilblains

To prepare mullein oil:

  1. Pick mullein flowers on a dry summer’s day, and lay them on a mesh drying screen overnight.
  2. Put the flowers in a mason jar and cover with olive oil by at least one inch.  
  3. Cover the jar with a piece of cloth held on by an elastic band.  The cloth allows any moisture to escape. 
  4. Put the jar on a warm sunny windowsill and stir twice daily for two weeks. Stirring the mixture will keep the flowers submerged and reduce the possibility of growing mold. 
  5. After a couple of weeks, you’ll notice that the flowers have gone transleucent and faded.  It’s now time to strain the oil. 
  6. Pour the oil through a fine mesh strainer into another jar. If there’s water in the first jar, you’ll want to pour slowly to avoid transferring the water into the second jar. 
  7. Store in a cool, dark place for up to a year. 
  8. For earache, put 1 to 2 drops of oil into the affected ear as needed for pain.


Good for:

  • Removing splinters
  • Drawing oit boils
  • Soothing back aches
  • Lymphatic swelling
  • Mumps
  • Broken bones

To Prepare a mullein poultice:

  1. To soften the leaves, place in a shallow dish and pour some boiling water on them.
  2. Let cool
  3. Place leaves on affected area 

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